Quantum computing is a process that uses quantum properties, particularly superposition and entanglement, in order to perform computation. Computers that can perform quantum computation are called quantum computers. Classical computers process data through the electrical transmission of bits made up of either a 0 or a 1. A quantum computer, on the other hand, transmits a quantum bit, or qubit, that is made of photons or electrons. These qubits are more closely aligned with quantum mechanical theories than with traditional mechanical theories. Qubits in superposition can exist as both a 0 and a 1 simultaneously. Entangled qubits are qubits that cannot be described separately from their quantum state. These quantum properties are used to create quantum algorithms that can process and solve problems that would take conventional computers a long time to solve.
Because quantum computing can utilize quantum states, they are able to significantly speed up their processing time. Classic computations have to be run multiple times, as they can only produce a 0 or a 1 at any given time. However, superpositioning allows for computations to be run with a 0 and a 1 simultaneously. This means that rather than having to be run repeatedly, the different variables can be run simultaneously, allowing for a large number of computations to be quickly assessed.
Understanding quantum computing can be a difficult task that is made easier by understanding its uses. Quantum mechanics is often utilized for cryptographic purposes. For example, cryptography systems that utilize prime factorization, where the composite numbers are limited to prime numbers, are considered to be computationally infeasible to solve with classical computers. However, quantum computing can decode long strings of coded data relatively quickly. While it has not yet been proven, scientists are looking into ways that quantum computers can solve problems that cannot be solved by their classical counterparts. Once this can be proven, the scientists who have done so will achieve “quantum supremacy.”
Additionally, research is being done into ways to integrate quantum computing with artificial intelligence to improve machine learning algorithms. Because quantum computing can solve complex problems quickly, it can be used to speed up existing processes, such as deep neural networks. Quantum computing is also being utilized to simulate quantum physical processes such as those from chemistry and physics.
Quantum mechanics is still in its infancy, and many of its applications are more theoretical at this point. However, as research in the field continues to grow, so will the practical applications. In the future, quantum computing will have many uses for businesses and organizations, including: